Blood = Blood cells (45%) + Blood Plasma (55%)

Blood cells = RBCs + WBCs + Platelets

Blood Plasma = fluid (water) which contains Proteins, Minerals, Glucose, Hormones, Carbon dioxide (excreted via plasma) Electrolytes, Antibodies, Antigens, exogenous substances such as drugs, microorganisms.

  • Plasma carries cells and proteins throughout the body.

Plasma Proteins = Albumin, Globulin & Fibrinogen

  • Albumin is the main protein in plasma. It helps with regulation of colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. It increases the viscosity of blood. Sodium is highly attracted to albumin. So together they attract water in to the intravascular space. Albumin is produced by liver. A high level of protein occurs in dehydration, hepatitis and Multiple Myeloma.
  • Globulins includes immunoglobulins (Ig) which play a role in immune system.
  • Fibrinogen helps with blood clotting.

Blood Serum = Blood Plasma without clotting factors. (to obtain serum, the blood is allowed to clot, then centrifuged to remove blood cells and clotted material)